RAMI 4.0

(Reference Architecture Model Industrie 4.0)

A reference architecture model, i.e. a uniform conceptual and methodological structure, forms a basis for ensuring that the experts involved from the various disciplines master this complexity and speak a common language. It creates a common structure for the uniform description and specification of concrete system architectures.

RAMI 4.0 is a three-dimensional consolidation of the most important aspects of Industrie 4.0, ensuring that all participants in Industrie 4.0 share a common perspective and build a common understanding.

RAMI4.0 as three-dimensional Layer model

The Reference Architecture Model Industrie 4.0, RAMI 4.0 in shortened form, consists of a three-dimensional coordinate system that contains the essential aspects of Industrie 4.0. Complex relationships can thus be broken down into smaller, manageable packages.

Axis "Hierarchy Levels"

On the right horizontal axis are the hierarchical levels from IEC 62264, the international series of norms on the integration of company IT and control systems. These hierarchy levels represent the different functionalities within the factory or plant.

Axis "Life Cycle & Value Stream"

The left horizontal axis represents the life cycle of plants and products. The basis for this is IEC 62890 on life cycle management. A distinction is also made between type and instance. A "type" becomes an "instance" when the development and prototype production is completed and the actual product is manufactured in the production department. 

Axis "Layers"

With the help of the six layers on the vertical axis of the model, the IT representation, i.e. the digital image of a machine, for example, is described in a structured way layer by layer. The representation in layers comes from information and communication technology. In this field it is common practice to structure complex products in layers.


The three axes represent all essential aspects of Industrie 4.0. They make it possible to classify an object such as a machine in the model. Thus, highly flexible Industrie 4.0 concepts can be described and implemented with RAMI 4.0. The Reference Architecture Model allows a step-by-step migration from the actual to the Industrie 4.0 world.


International Cooperations -

Generate interoperability worldwide

Successful mapping of the internationally recognized pre-norm RAMI 4.0 (IEC PAS 63088) with nationally developed reference architectures of other countries. 

  • USA: Whitepaper - Presentation and Comparison Reference Architectures RAMI 4.0 & Industrial Internet Reference Architecture (IIRA)
  • China: Sino-German Alignment Report for RAMI4.0/ IMSA
  • Japan: Harmonization of RAMI 4.0 and its Japanese counterpart IVRA
  • Germany, France and Italy: Harmonisation of RAMI 4.0 with the national models

RAMI 4.0 in national and international standardization

Meanwhile RAMI 4.0 has been successfully introduced in national and international standardization committees and cooperations, initially as international IEC PAS 63088.


On this basis, a positioning of the IEC PAS 63088 with RAMI 4.0 and Asset Administrative Shell to the internationally adequately developed reference architecture models of other countries was worked out. Subsequently, the ISO/IEC Joint Working Group 21 was constituted in order to consistently design and merge the Reference Architecture Models currently relevant on the ISO and IEC side. On these analyses, further aspects from the field of "Smart Manufacturing" are identified and transferred to the Smart Manufacturing Reference Model (SMRM). On this basis, a "metalanguage" of concepts and important relationships can be characterized, which offers the Smart Manufacturing user a free space over abstraction.


 The final results, initially as TR and subsequently as TS, are expected by mid 2020.


German Expert Committee

International Expert Committee

Further reference models from the Industrie 4.0 environment

The previous edition of the Standardization Roadmap already pointed out the heterogeneity of solutions for reference architecture models. In the Industrie 4.0 environment in particular, there was and still is a need for harmonization. Internationally, working groups and committees such as ISO/IEC JTC1/AG8, ISO/IEC JWG 21 and ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC41 are dealing with this. The main objective of these activities is to develop a strategy for harmonizing current standards for reference architectures in order to achieve a common understanding of the properties of reference architecture models and related standards.


    Meta Reference Architecture and Reference Architecture for System Integration

    For example, WG08 deals with harmonisation concepts on the meta-level, in particular with (a) the investigation of current procedures for the development of reference architecture and meta-reference architecture in JTC 1-relevant system integration contexts, (b) the development of definitions, concepts, processes, models and templates for the meta-reference architecture, (c) the cooperation with relevant standardisation organisations and (d) the development of recommendations for JTC 1 for successful system integration using the developing meta-reference architecture. To avoid duplication of work, these activities should be coordinated with the parallel activities of JWG 21.

„A Meta-modelling analysis approach to Smart Manufacturing Reference Models (SMRM)” presents a metamodeling approach for the analysis and description of Smart Manufacturing reference models. The document refers to the specific area of Smart Manufacturing in general Industrie 4.0 environments, which results in a clear separation in terms of Industrial IoT. The report currently identifies 17 relevant reference architecture models. Based on these analyses, further aspects from the area of "Smart Manufacturing" are identified and transferred to SMRM. On this basis, SMRM can be characterized as a "meta-language" of concepts and important relationships, which offers the Smart Manufacturing user freedom over abstraction.


The final results, initially as TR and subsequently as TS, are expected by mid 2020.

  • Reference Architecture for IoT
    ISO/IEC JTC 1 SC41 Industrial Internet of Things IIoT

    A central role in Industrial IoT is played by sensors, actuators and technical systems that collect production data and distribute it via the network, where it can be further processed using algorithms at the cloud computing level.
    One of the most important norms in the field of IoT is the
    ISO/IEC 30141:2018 Reference Architecture for IoT, published by ISO/IEC JTC 1 SC41. The norm provides a standardized IoT reference architecture, based on the vocabulary of (ISO/IEC 20924) and a generic design using industrial best practice applications. The standard serves as a basis for the development of context-specific IoT architectures and thus also industrial sensors, machines, plants and other technical systems. The generic design of the concept can be extended to other industry-specific areas and include specific technological requirements and national-specific applications.
  • Standardkartierung für Referenzarchitekturmodelle
    ISO/IEC JTC 1 AG 20 Industrial IoT

    In support of harmoniation activities at the international level, various activities are currently being carried out in ISO/IEC JTC 1 SC 41 AG 20 Industrial IoT  with the aim of standard mapping. The relevant IoT standards are divided into the corresponding RAMI4.0 layers and other relevant areas in the context of Industrie 4.0. The mapping should provide an overview of the current standards landscape and reveal possible standardization gaps in the area of Industrial IoT. Such an activity requires a very good cooperation of numerous committees and should be supported by other activities such as industrial practice and research [HE 2.2-A1].

National, this activity is mirrored in DIN NA 043-01-41 AA.


In order to make the Internet of Things and Services possible, an accurate representation, including clear rules, of the objects of the physical world in the information world is needed.


The Platform Industrie 4.0 has been working on this issue from a very early stage and has become the focus of attention.


In the meantime, there are countless individual publications on this topic, a bound version such as this one is unique to date. This book deals with the characterization of objects in the world of information and provides rules for the informatic representation of these objects. 


The German as well as the English version are published by Beuth Verlag


It combines the contents of diverse documents from the various working groups, puts them in relation to each other and thus enables the reader to gain a comprehensive understanding of the technology of Industry 4.0.




About the authors:


Roland Heidel

After studying electrical engineering, Roland Heidel joined Siemens in 1977 in the Industrial Communications Systems Development department. Among other things, he was technical project manager of the joint project Fieldbus for the realization of the industrial field communication system Profibus and head of several EU projects on topics of industrial automation technology, especially in the field of product-based engineering. He was head of an apron department and, until he left Siemens AG, head of the Standards & Regulations department.


Dr Michael Hoffmeister

Michael Hoffmeister studied computer science at the Technical University of Karlsruhe and worked as a freelance developer of real-time systems. He then worked as a researcher and project manager at the Fraunhofer Institute IPA in Stuttgart, where he received his doctorate in 2012. Since then he has been responsible for portfolio management for software tools for the component manufacturer Festo. His current professional interest lies in engineering platforms for mechatronic systems.


 Martin Hankel

Martin Hankel has a degree in electrical engineering with a focus on control engineering as well as an additional course of study for a Master of Business Marketing. He has held various positions at Hoechst AG, AEG and Schneider electric. Today, he is project manager for Industrie 4.0 Technology at Bosch Rexroth AG. In addition, he has been active since 2012 and is involved in many publications of the various committees on the Industrie 4.0 reference architecture, including the Plattform Industrie 4.0, ZVEI, VDI, VDMA, DIN and DKE.


Udo Döbrich

Udo Döbrich started at Siemens in 1980 after studying computer science in the apron development department of the industrial division. There he was responsible for testing and implementing new technologies in automation engineering and their standards. As head of the IEC working group "Digital Factory" he created in his working group with the documents IEC TR 62794 and IEC 62832 essential basics for modelling for data technical component descriptions as they are also used in Industrie 4.0.


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